The Axel jump, also called the Axel Paulsen jump for its creator, Norwegian figure skater Axel Paulsen, is an edge jump in the sport of figure skating. It is figure skating’s oldest and most difficult jump. It is the only competition jump that begins with a forward takeoff, which makes it the easiest jump to identify. A double or triple Axel is required in both the short programs and free skating programs for junior and senior single skaters in all International Skating Union (ISU) competitions.